Tuesday, May 24, 2016

Word of the Month: Decoration

The primary focus of the present AND project involves the editing of those entries beginning with the letters N, O, P and U. In addition to this, the editors have designed and implemented a series of semantic tags, as we have mentioned in some of our previous posts. These tags have been developed to assist users in determining the semantic area in which a definition is applicable. It is envisaged that by early 2017, users of the dictionary will be able to search via the semantic tags, allowing them to extract all words used in a particular area (for example, all plant names, or all words relating to brewing, etc.).

The examination of the semantic tags in use in the dictionary often shows us how important certain texts are to our understanding of a particular semantic field. While AND1 contained a [decor] tag, it was poorly used, originally flagging only 22 Anglo-Norman words. This tag is meant to highlight terms and senses "related to visual embellishment or adornment of objects, persons or places, including decorative motifs and techniques". These are the types of terms one would expect to find in documents that describe, or list, household or ecclesiastical items, such as inventories, wills, or account books.

One particular source used for the making of the AND are the Bedford Inventories and their incorporation into AND2 has increased the number of entries tagged as [decor] to 163 (and growing!). This book[1] publishes three post-mortem inventories of the goods of John, duke of Bedford, completed in the mid-fifteenth century. These documents provide a record and description of the duke of Bedford's belongings, as well as the inventory of the goods in his chapel.

Image of a portion of inventory B, from PRO E 154/1/33

The importance of this type of text cannot be overstated. Currently, the Bedford Inventories are cited 346 times in AND2, illustrating 246 different entries. Of these, at least 20% of the entries or senses are solely illustrated by citations from Bedford, that is, these words or senses appear only in this text and nowhere else. It is also valuable as a witness for the use of Anglo-Norman in the fifteenth century, a period that saw the usage of the language dwindle.

What kind of words do we find solely in the Bedford Inventories and not elsewhere? As can be expected from this type of text, a number of the unique words and senses are ones which are used to describe the decorative items found in the Duke's household and chapel, giving us an unparalleled view of how a medieval royal household would be furnished and decorated.
The word decoration is unattested in Anglo-Norman, though it is extant in Medieval British Latin from 1238, in Middle French from 1416 and in Middle English from 1425 (see DMLBS decoratio; DMF decoration; MED decoracioun). The existence of these parallel forms suggests that it is highly likely the word existed in Anglo-Norman, but that we have not yet uncovered an attestation of the form. There were other ways of talking about decoration in Anglo-Norman though: apparaillement, atiffement, entaillure, and floresshing were all used in Anglo-Norman texts to refer to forms of decoration or adornment.

The writer of the Inventories frequently uses words that are well attested in Anglo-Norman, but uses them to describe decorative motifs rather than the item themselves. For example, we find the word oiselet, a diminutive used to refer to a small bird, used in the Bedford Inventories to describe a decorative image.

Item, une grand et haulte gobelet d'argent dorré [...] a .iiij. baneres rouges de petiz oiseletz esparniés d'argent, esmailés de vert Bedford Inventories 217.C17
[Item, a large and tall goblet of gilded silver [...] with four red banners of small birds coated (?) with silver, with green enamel[2]]

Other types of decoration include the addition of a bocete or boton, ornamental decorations of roundels or buds:

aulbe et amit parez, brodez de petites bosseites d'or Bedford Inventories 193.B62
[adorned alb and amice, embroidered with small golden roundels]

une aultre couppe d'or [...] a ung furtelé d'ung boton de fuilles d'or Bedford Inventories 215.C4
[another gold cup [...] with an embossed ornamental leaf pattern of golden leaf buds]

The Merode Cup; France 1400; Image from the Victoria and Albert Museum;

Other items might be decorated with valuable gems. In one description, small pearls are described as branlant. This likely is a substantival use of the present participle branler, meaning 'to shake, tremble', and it is likely that the pearls were suspended from the salt-cellar by gold rings, as is documented in other similar items of the era (though this makes it the sole attestation of the term in Anglo-Norman).

Item, ung saliere d'or en façon d'un labourer portant un hotte et soy appuyant a ung baston [...] et oudit [sic] baston de .xxix. perles plus menues, rondes et blanches branlans Bedford Inventories 210.B185
[Item, a golden salt-cellar in the form of a labourer carrying a basket and leaning on a staff, [...] and on the staff 29 smaller, round and white hanging pearls.]

Another method of decoration seems to have been the application of a pattern by hammering the reverse side of metal. This embossing was referred to martelé, from the verb marteler, meaning 'to hammer'.

Item ung haulte couppe d'or de la façon d'Angleterre, martellé de grandes fuilles Bedford Inventories C3
[Item, a tall, gold cup, in the English fashion, embossed with large leaves]

Several of the words attested in the Bedford Inventories are used in English in the sixteenth century as heraldic terms, however, the appear to have been used in these texts to describe decorative techniques. One such style of decoration is componné, called componé or compony in English. This refers to a decoration consisting of bands of alternating colours, known as compon or coupon, frequently found on a border. This technique is also known as gobony, from the past participle of the Anglo-Norman verb goboner, meaning to cut into strips.

deux chappes orfraiez d'orfraiz, componnez de pers et blanc au fleurs de liz l'or et ung 'K' couronné en broudeure Bedford Inventories 184.B3
[two copes, fringed with orphrey, with a bordure compony of blue and white with gold fleur-de-lis and an embroidered, crowned 'K']

Arms of Beaufort, with a bordure compony argent and azure

Eschequeté, is another word used during this period to describe a decoration formed of a chequered pattern. This term is only attested once, but the variant forms of chequeté, chequeré and eschequeré are more widely attested, describing a similar type of decoration:

Item, une autre chapelle de satin eschequeté Bedford Inventories 184.B3
[Item, another satin head covering of chequered satin]

We can find one of the variant forms in another text describing what is likely a very fine outfit:

brigandiers couvertez de rouge velvet chequeté noire et blank Reg Chich ii 65
[brigandines (a coat of mail) covered by red velvet chequered black and white]

Heraldic motifs also seem to have been a popular type of decoration and decoration with coats of arms seems to have been known as armoierie:

Item, une autre tunique et dalmatique de satin vert pour prelate, comme dessus, et orfraiez tout a long avec l'estole et fanon sur champ d'or, a pluseurs armoieries Bedford Inventories 191.B144
[Item, another tunic and dalmatic (=ecclesiastical vestments) of green satin for a prelate, as above, and decorated with orphrey (=a gold-embroidered fringe) along its length, with the stole and the maniple on a gold background, with several coats of arms]

Stole and maniple, linen embroidered with green, white, fawn and blue silks in long-armed cross-stitch with a design of heraldic shields in rectangular compartments with alternative green and fawn grounds. Dates from 1290-1340. Image from the Victoria and Albert Museum.http://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O130817/stole-and-maniple-unknown

Numerous decorative terms are highlighted in the AND through the addition of our semantic tags, and these will only increase as we continue our revision! These are but a few highlights of decorative terms found only in the Bedford Inventories. This type of documentation is essential to our full understanding of medieval life and the language used to describe it. Bedford is not the sole extant medieval inventory, but many (non-royal examples) of this type of text remain unedited in local archives. How might their identification and transcription change how we perceive the Middle Ages in Britain and the use of Anglo-Norman during this period?

[1] The dictionary relies on the excellent edition found in: The Bedford Inventories: The Worldly Goods of John, Duke of Bedford, Regent of France (1389-1435), ed. J. Stratford, London, 1993. Complete with extensive notes and pictures, it's a fantastic look inside an interesting text.
[2] Stratford suggests this cup may have been emblazoned with the arms of Sir Thomas Erpingham:"vert an escutcheon within an orle of eight marlets argent" p. 344.

Monday, April 18, 2016

Word of the Month: April showers

‘Sweete April showers, Doo spring Maie flowers’[1].

From the late 16th century, Brits appear to have hoped that poor weather in the month of April would give way to sunnier days come May, though it’s likely that the sentiment was first expressed much earlier than that.[2] So synonymous is the month of April with rainy weather that one Anglo-Norman author it turned it into a verb, avriller, with the express meaning of ‘to rain, be showery’!

Mon avril et ma violete, Moun pré de mai e ma florete [...] Et mes rosiers quant il avrille Ma flor qui pur giel ne s’esmaie Ross ANTS 1880
[My April and my violets, My May meadow and my flower [...] And my rosebushes when it rains, My flower which does not fear a frost]

Image of a man holding flowers in April calendar BL Add 21114 fol. 2v

There are no shortage of Anglo-Norman terms to talk about inclement weather, which is perhaps unsurprising in a language used in the British Isles!  The weather could be anuius (‘cloudy’), pluius (‘rainy’) or cuitus (‘stormy’; though normally an adjective meaning ‘hasty’). The Latin word for storm, tempestas [3], gave rise to a host of terms in Anglo-Norman to refer to bad weather. One could refer to inclemency as a destemprance (also used in English in the form distemprance) or as an entempauns or merely as a tempeste (which persists in English as tempest and in French as tempête).

les maisons [...] abatuz par tempest de vent   GAUNT1 ii 177
(the houses [...] knocked over by a wind storm)

So great was the rain that one could simply use the word for river, flueve, to refer to the weather! The most frequently used terms for rain though are those that continue to be found in Modern French: pluie and pleuvoir (pluvoir).

E l’eir par venz e par fluvies (var. par pluie) commovera Antecrist 113
(And the air will be shaken by wind and rain)

Along with the rain, comes the wind! Anglo-Norman had multiple terms for wind, beyond the general term vent. These terms refer to specific types of winds, generally in reference to the direction from whence they came and are frequently adapted from the names of the Latin gods of the wind. Thus the wind called affricum (i.e. from Africa) is one from the south-west, the wind called aquilon is from the north, after the god of the same name. An austre is from the south, derived from the Latin wind god Auster, while a favonyn is from the west. This last wind is derived from the Latin Favonius, which might be more familiar by its Greek name Zephyrus. This wind was believed to bring the spring. (Favonian is also used in English but was borrowed from Latin in the seventeenth century.)

Atant lur vynt de le occident un vent favonyn Fouke ANTS 43.9
(Then a Favonian/westerly wind came to them from the west)

Depiction of the winds BL Royal 20.D.1 f.281r

Another wind, which is the subject of a newly created entry in the AND, is called the plovel. Also known as the plougol, it derives from the Latin pluvialis, that is, relating to rain, thus is it the word given to a wind from the south(or west) believed to bring the aforementioned April showers.

The Latin term aura, meaning ‘favourable wind’ later developed the sense of ‘weather conditions’. This word is etymologically related to the Anglo-Norman terms of or meaning ‘a gentle breeze, soft wind’, oré meaning either a favourable or a violent wind, as well orage used as well to indicate a favourable wind or a violent wind storm.

After the wind and rain comes a rainbow, known as an arc de ciel or an arc en ciel (see arc 1) (literally a ‘bow of the sky’; Modern French uses arc-en-ciel). The phenomenon was also called iris, after the Latin goddess who personified the rainbow.

Yrim l’arc del cel apelom Que nus contre pluie veum; Pur ço ad num yris la pere Lapid 245.1281
(We call iris ‘rainbow’ which we see against the rain; this is why we call the stone iris (a variety of quartz which displays the colours of the rainbow))
Rainbow BL Add. 38842 f.1r

Hopefully as we get closer to May we will see the weather begin to enbelir, that is, to become more beautiful and give way to clerseie (‘clear weather’). Perhaps then we will see the ground asolailer (‘to dry in the sun’) and enflurir (‘to bring forth flowers’) and reflurir  (‘to flourish anew’). Hopefully this spring will also bring the editors, working on the revision of P, their first attestation of the word printemps, that is, ‘Spring’, as this form is currently absent from the dictionary![4]

[1] Thomass Tusser, Five hundred pointes of good husbandrie. Eds. S.J.H. Herrtage and W. Payne. London: English Dialect Society, 1878, p.103.
[2] Chaucer began The Canterbury Tales invoking the showery weather of April, ‘When that Aprill with his shoures soote...’.  The Riverside Chaucer traces the origins of this topos in Romance literature and parallels in other works (Third Edition (1988), p. 799).
[3] We will continue to give page reference for DMLBS headwords in the AND,  the dictionary is now available via www.logeion.uchicago.edu where is is possible to search by headword.
[4]  Printens is attested from 1164 in Old French [DEAF prim (printens)] but no Anglo-Norman citation using the word has been found. However, as it is attested in Middle English, under the form prime-temps from 1425, it would suggest that the term was likely in use in England. There was another way to refer to Spring in Anglo-Norman using the term ver. This term will be familiar to speakers of Italian and Spanish, where primavera is used to denote the season.

Monday, March 21, 2016

WoM: 'Easter' or 'Pasche'

Before the AND starts its well-deserved Easter break, let’s have a look at the word - Easter - in its medieval context of multilingual England. While Middle English used the word ester(n for this Christian festival of the Resurrection, Anglo-Norman had the term pasche cognate with Medieval Latin's pascha (DMLBS 2133a). There are clearly two different etyma involved here.

The word Easter is remarkable in that is found only in English and German, which still uses Ostern to refer to the feast.[1] Other Germanic languages, and even most European languages, use some variant of pascha: e.g. Pâques (Modern French), pääsiäinen (Finnish), Pasua (Italian), Pasen (Dutch) and πάσχα (Greek). The etymology of that root is straightforward: the word derives from the Hebrew word pesah for ‘Passover’ (the Jewish commemoration of the Israelites' liberation from slavery and exodus from Egypt under Moses). There is evidence that already in the first century  Passover imagery and terminology became associated with Christ's resurrection.[2]

(Passover - London, British Library, MS Or. 2884, fol. 18r)

This original sense of pasche as a Jewish festival was often retained in medieval usage, as for example in this early fourteenth-century Anglo-Norman Bible paraphrase:

A la feste de paskes vyint Jhesus en Jerusalem (Bible1 33.9)
('On the feast of Easter, Jesus came to Jerusalem')

Unsurprisingly for such an important Christian feast, the term, with reference to the Resurrection, is well attested both in Anglo-Norman:

Un jur de Paske a la grant feste Au manger seit li rois (S Edw2 3278)
('One Easter day, on thos great festival, the king sat down to eat')

and in Medieval Latin:

reddendo [...] .j. denarium ad phasca pro omni servicio (Danelaw 385)
('by giving back [...] one penny at Easter for all service')

(Ressurection, Andrea di Bartolo (Italian, active 1389-1428))

It also acquires a place in Medieval English, and the MED lists two variants: pask(e and (with loss of the final velar stop)  pas(e 2):

Alle þe baronage at Pask afterward Com to Wynchester to coroune kyng Edward (Mannyng Chron.Pt.2 57)

In tyme of winter [...] Fro þe kalandes of November Unto þe pase, es risyng right At þe aght our of þe nyght (Ben.Rule(2) 1123)

Though largely falling out of usage in favour of Easter, these forms persist in English and are listed in the OED, pasch n. and pace n.2, as either archaic and historical or, in the case of pace regional (Northern and Scottish – though their most recent example is from 1955). However, English did preserve the etymon for adjectival usage in paschal, eg. paschal candle or paschal lamb. For some reason, the equivalent alternative, Easterly (‘of or relating to Easter’), fell out of usage by the end of the seventeenth century.[3]

Incidentally, pesah also produced the word phase in Anglo-Norman, cognate to phase n. in Middle English (see also OED phase n.1, considered historical) and Phase in Medieval Latin (DMLBS 2263c), solely in reference to Jewish Passover or, as is the case in the Anglo-Norman entry which is currently under revision, to the sacrificial lamb prepared for Passover:

il rosterent phase sur le feu (Bible2 300vb)
('they roasted the Pesah lamb on the fuire')

Returning to the term Easter, we can be less sure of its origin, although a number of theories have been brought forward. The word appears in Old English as easter or eastre in, for example, the writings of Aelfric and Bede. In his Latin De Temporum Ratione, written in 725, Bede explains the word as derived from Eostre/Eastre – the name, he claims, of an Anglo-Saxon goddess whose festival was celebrated around the vernal equinox (15.9). As no further reference to this goddess can be found anywhere else, most scholars believe that, while some pagan feast may have formed the basis of this word becoming associated with a Christian festival, Bede may have invented the goddess and her name (see OED etymology)[4].

(unidentified - Easter festive meal with a basket of decorated eggs?)

In the case of German, the only other language using a similar word, Duden’s etymological dictionary (Der grosse Duden, Vol. 7 Etymologie, Herkunftswörterbuch der deutschen Sprache, 1963, p. 485b) relates Ostern to Germanic ausro, cognate with Sanskrit uṣas, Avestan ušah- , ancient Greek ἠώς or ἕως, and classical Latin aurōra, the word for ‘dawn’. As the OED confirms, possibly a deification of dawn (cf. Eos, goddess of dawn in Greek mythology) may well have been associated with pagan celebrations of the beginning of spring. In times of Christianisation, the word, associated with rebirth, may have been transferred to the celebration of the Resurrection. Altogether an interpretation which is not all that different from Bede’s millennium old account.
Interestingly, such an interpretation indicates a common origin for Easter/Ostern (the festival) and east/Ost(en) (the point of the compass), both associated with dawn and the rising of the sun.

(The Resurrection of Christ by Dirk Bouts (1475))

In the context of intense lexical interchange between Anglo-Norman and English and of vernacular languages influencing Medieval Latin, it is perhaps remarkable that no trace of any form or derivative of the term Easter is currently listed by the AND or the DMLBS. This restricted circulation of the term, confined to English and German, is intriguing, and the reason why it did not cross over at all in other languages, particularly within medieval England, is one of those unpredictable characteristics of languages.

(For more information of the medieval tradition of decorating Easter eggs - for example, in 1290 Edward I's accounts include payment for 450 eggs decorated with gold leaf - and the history of Easter egg hunting, see this blog.)


[1] The additional nasal ending, sometimes found in Middle English (estern) but lexicalised in Modern German (Ostern) is probably derived from an original plural ending (Old English eastran).
[2]  'Cleanse out the old leaven that you may be a new lump, as you really are unleavened. For Christ, our Passover lamb, has been sacrificed' (1 Corinthians 5:7).
[3] Cf. MED esterlich.
[4] For further discussion and alternative derivations see D. H. Green Language and History in the Early Germanic World, Cambridge, 1998, pp. 351-53, and  J. Udolph and K. Schäferdieck in J. Hoops's Reallexikon der germanischen Altertumskunde, second edition, 2003, vol. 22, pp. 331-38.

Monday, February 22, 2016

Word of the Month: Purple

As the editors of the AND work their way towards the end of the revision of the letter ‘P’, one of the entries being rewritten is that of the colour purpre, that is, ‘purple’[1]. Defining what that means is trickier than it first appears, as is often the case with colour words. Is purple a colour in the pink/red family or is it a shade of blue? To further complicate matters, there are in fact numerous words used in Anglo-Norman to refer to different shades of purple, some of which we’ll look at here.

Purpre derives from the Latin purpura [DMLBS 2584c], and doesn’t refer always to the colour we now know as purple. Originally, the term referred to the shade of dye obtained from a sea snail, which was a variable crimson or reddish shade, which is also known as Tyrian purple. The blue-purple colour found in medieval manuscripts is often plant based, normally from the plant known as turnsole though this colour was also created using a variety of other plants and berries.[2]

The first edition of the AND only lists one citation using the word as a colour adjective, implying that its sense was evident. This will certainly be remedied by the current revision, and the new entry will give a better idea of the scope of the use of the adjective. As a substantive purpre is used in Anglo-Norman to refer to the colour as well as, specifically, to purple cloth, often in reference to imperial robes. Purple cloth and dye were particularly costly and became associated, from Roman times, with the emperor, the pope and royalty.

BL Add. 4255 f.17 Image of emperor Vespasian

Purpre was also used to designate the purple colour used in heraldry, a term that continues in use today in English in the form purpure. The colour was used, for example, by Henry de Lacy, 3rd Earl of Lincoln on his arms as described in the Falkirk Roll:

Henry de Lacy, counte de Nichole, chevetaigne de la premier bataille, porte d’or ou ung leoun rampaund de purpure Eight Rolls 86.1
(Henry de Lacy, count of Lincoln, knight of the first battle, carries or, a lion rampant purpure.)

These arms would be incorporated into those of Lincoln’s Inn, one of the four Inns of Court in London.

There are a number of derivations of the word purple in the AND. Purprin is used with the meaning ‘crimson, purple’ and as a noun refer to a type of cloth. We also find the related purprie, meaning ‘purple’ (which should perhaps be read as purpri[n]e?) and purprine, a type of cloth of that colour. We also have the related enpurpuré, meaning ‘made purple’. Purpurine was also borrowed into Middle English and was used to refer to things of a purple or scarlet colour, frequently in relation to cloth. Empurpled is equally used in English but is a post-medieval creation.

An unusual variant is the form furfuré, which is only attested once in an interesting Anglo-Norman glossary of Arabic words from the beginning of the fourteenth century:

Anagales, che est une herbe qui a .ij. flours, l'une a color rouge & l'autre furfuree Glossario arabo-francese 367.53
(Anagales [i.e. pimpernel, Anagallis], this is an herb which has two flowers, one red and one purple.)

We also have a single attestation for the word purpuresse, meaning a woman who sells purple cloth or dye. This word seems to have been created specifically in reference to St Lydia of Thyatira in medieval biblical translations of Acts 16:14-15, as we see it used below in the Anglo-Norman Bible, and in equivalent passages in English translations (see the OED purpuress).

une purpuresse de la citee des Thiathiriens Actes 369va
(A purple-dye seller of the city of the Thyatirans)

BL Add. 42160 f.152v showing a naked purple man

Purpre isn’t the only term you can use to refer to the colour in Anglo-Norman. We have the entry violet , which, however, currently doesn't list any attestations in reference to the colour rather than the plant from which the colour derives its name. This is surprising as the term violet is used in Middle English by the fourteenth century in reference to this colour. It is likely we will add this to the dictionary when we come to the revision of ‘V’! The colour is however attested in the entry for viole:

amatiste, ke est [...] de culur medlee [...] De viole e de rose Apoc 4238
(amethyst, which is of a mixed colour, of violet and pink)

The word garance referred to the shade obtained by madder dye, a deep reddish purple, though our citations show that this was considered closer to red than purple as it glossed the Latin rubea, and was synonymous with ruge (red) and vermeil (vermilion):

rubea: de varence, de vermayl, ruge TLL 136

The words inde and yndois refer to the colour obtained by the use of indigo, generally a purplish-blue colour. This appears to have been a colour distinct both from azur (‘blue, azure’) and from purpre.

et ad le col tout jaune de la colour d’un oriel bien luisant, et le dos de ynde, et les aeles de porpre colour Mandeville 151
(and it (the phoenix) had a completely yellow neck, the colour of a shining oriole and an indigo back and wings of a purple colour)

Jacintin is also used to refer to a purplish colour, in metonymy with the reddish blue, or purple colour of the hyacinth. English jacinth also referred to a blue-coloured stone, though in modern usage, it refers to an orange gemstone. The Anglo-Norman context does not solve the ambiguity as to which colour the term refers to:

Le prince de prestres bien aparaillez, En l'estole jacintine Rom Chev ANTS 3843
(The prince of priests, well dressed in a jacinth-coloured stole)

We also find several uses of terms derived from the Gaelic word for purple (corcur)  in the AND. Cork or corkir is the English term used for a lichen from which one can derive a reddish-purple dye, and appears as either cork or jarecork in Anglo-Norman. It appears side by side with another species of lichen used to dye fabric purple, orchil in English:

ascun tiel drap, le quel puis mesme le fest serra tinctez oveqz orchel ou cork appellez jarecork Stats ii 487
(any such  fabric, which once made will be dyed with orchil or cork called jarcork)

BL Royal 16 E.II f.24v showing a purple decoration

One final way to describe something purple in Anglo-Norman is with the adjective muré, referring to the reddish-purple colour of mulberries or mure. Once again this term can equally be found in English, as murrey, though it is used primarily to refer to the colour in heraldic descriptions.

Pour une robe de samit rouge, pour une autre robe d'or de Turquie en laquelle elle fu espousee, pour une autre robe de veluel gramsi, pour un corset de tartais moret et pour une autre robe de tartais Isabella Inventory 520
(For a dress of red samite, for another gold dress from Turkey in which she was married, for another dress of crimson velvet, for a corset of mulberry tartarin and for another tartarin robe)

'Colour' is one of the new semantic tags that has been added to AND definitions during the present revision and later this year users will be able to search by this tag to discover all the Anglo-Norman words for a variety of colours. There are currently 180 colour words in the AND just waiting to be discovered.


[1] While we now use the word purple to describe the colour, the term purpure is well attested in Middle English, as well as in Occitan, Catalan, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian. Similar terms exist in the Germanic languages as well, including Swedish, German and Dutch. See the etymological discussion in the OED for the entries purpure and purple for a more developed discussion of the dissimilation process which shifted the pronunciation of the word, in English, from purpure to purple.
[2] For a description of Anglo-Norman colour recipes, see T. Hunt, 'Early Anglo-Norman receipts for colours', Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes. 58 (1995), 203-209.